Personality and Health – A Longitudinal Study

This study tests the models and mechanisms by which childhood personality traits predict adult health-related behaviors, physical and mental health status, and eventually mortality.
Details

This study began over 50 years ago with personality assessments of the participants when they were elementary school children on two Hawaiian islands. Since 1998, investigators located and recruited participants for questionnaire assessments of personality and many other psychosocial variables, including an extensive baseline medical and psychological examination at mean age 50. The project has just received another five years of funding.

During this next phase the primary activity will be to conduct the first follow-up medical and psychological examination of the participants at mean age 60, approximately 10 years after the baseline examination. Childhood personality and personality change (from childhood to adulthood, plus personality change in adulthood) will be used to predict physical health and cognitive function at mean age 60, and changes in physical health and cognitive functioning from mean age 50 to 60.

This project will generate evidence to guide personality based interventions, in particular by suggesting which traits and trait mechanisms are most relevant in childhood and at midlife (e.g., trait conscientiousness in elementary school, health-behavior mechanisms at midlife).

PROJECT PERIOD

9/1/17 - 3/31/22

FUNDING AGENCY

National Institute on Aging (NIA)

PUBLICATIONS

McGrath, R. E., Hall-Simonds, A., & Goldberg, L. R. (in press). Are measures of character and personality distinct? Evidence from observed-score and true-score analyses. Assessment.

Kern, M., Hampson, S., Goldberg, L., & Friedman, H. (2014). Integrating prospective longitudinal data: Modeling personality and health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies. Developmental Psychology, 50(5), 1390-1406. doi:10.1037/a0030874

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Friedman, H., Kern, M., Hampson, S., & Duckworth, A. (2014). A new life-span approach to conscientiousness and health: Combining the pieces of the causal puzzle. Developmental Psychology, 50(5), 1377-1389. doi:10.1037/a0030373

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Hampson, S., Edmonds, G., Goldberg, L., Dubanoski, J., & Hillier, T. (2013). Childhood conscientiousness relates to objectively measured adult physical health four decades later. Health Psychology: Official Journal Of The Division Of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 32(8), 925-928. doi:10.1037/a0031655

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Klest, B., Freyd, J. J., Hampson, S. E., & Dubanoski, J. P. (2013). Trauma, socioeconomic resources, and self-rated health in an ethnically diverse adult cohort. Ethnicity & Health, 18(1), 97-113. doi:10.1080/13557858.2012.700916

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Turiano, N. A., Whiteman, S. D., Hampson, S. E., Roberts, B. W., & Mroczek, D. K. (2012). Personality and substance use in midlife: Conscientiousness as a moderator and the effects of trait change. Journal Of Research In Personality, 46, 295-305. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2012.02.009

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Vollrath. M. E., Hampson, S. E., & Pétur B. Júlíusson (2012). Children and Eating: Personality and gender are associated with obesogenic food consumption and overweight in 6- to 12-year-olds. Appetite, 58 (3), 1113-1117.

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Hampson, S. E., & Vollrath, M. E. (2012). Temperament and physical health over the lifespan. In M. Zentner & R. Shiner (Eds.), Handbook of temperament, 2nd ed., Guilford Press.

Markowitz, E. M., Goldberg, L. R., Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2012). Profiling the “pro-environmental individual”: A personality perspective. Journal of Personality, 80, 81-111.

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Chapman, B. P., & Goldberg, L. R. (2011). Replicability and 40-year predictive power of childhood ARC types. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 593-606.

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Rentfrow, P. J., Goldberg, L. R., & Levitin, D. J. (2011). The structure of musical preferences: A five-factor model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 1139-1157.

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Rentfrow, P. J., Goldberg, L. R., & Zilca, R. (2011). Listening, watching, and reading: The structure and correlates of entertainment preferences. Journal of Personality, 79, 223-257.

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Hampson, S. E. (2011). Personality processes: Mechanisms by which personality traits “get outside the skin.” Annual Review of Psychology, 63.

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Vollrath, M. E., Tonstad, S., Rothbart, M. K., & Hampson, S. E. (2011). Infant temperament is associated with potentially obesogenic diet at 18 months. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, 6(2-2), e408-e414.

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Nave, C. S. (2011). Long-term stability of personality: Implications for behavior. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of California, Riverside, CA.

Hampson, S.E., Tildesley, E., Andrews, J.A., Luyckx, K., & Mroczek, D.K. (2010). The relation of change in hostility and sociability during childhood to substance use in mid adolescence. Journal of Research in Personality, 44, 103-114. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2009.12.006.

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Hampson, S. E., Tonstad, S., Irgens, L. M., Meltzer, H. M., & Vollrath, M. (2010). Mothers’ negative affectivity during pregnancy and food choices for their infants. International Journal of Obesity, 34, 327-331.

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Woods, S. A., & Hampson, S. E. (2010). Predicting adult occupational environments from gender and childhood personality traits. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95, 1045-1057.

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Goldberg, L. R. (2010). Personality, demographics, and self-reported behavioral acts: The development of avocational interest scales from estimates of the amount of time spent in interest-related activities. In C. R. Agnew, D. E. Carlston, W. G. Graziano, & J. R. Kelly (Eds.), Then a miracle occurs: Focusing on behavior in social psychological theory and research (pp. 205-226). New York: Oxford University Press.

Nave, C. S., Sherman, R. A., Funder, D. C., Hampson, S. E., & Goldberg, L. R. (2010). On the contextual independence of personality: Teachers’ assessments predict directly observed behavior after four decades. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1, 327-334.

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Pozzebon, J. A., Visser, B. A., Ashton, M. C., Lee, K., & Goldberg, L. R. (2010). Psychometric characteristics of a public-domain self-report measure of vocational interests: The Oregon Vocational Interest Scales. Journal of Personality Assessment, 92, 168-174.

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Rammstedt, B., Goldberg, L. R., & Borg, I. (2010). The measurement equivalence of Big-Five factor markers for persons with different levels of education. Journal of Research in Personality, 44, 53-61.

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Ashton, M. C., Lee, K., Goldberg, L. R., & de Vries, R. E. (2009). Higher-order factors of personality: Do they exist? Personality and Social Psychology Review, 13, 79-91.

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Goldberg, L. R. (2009). How to win a career achievement award in five easy lessons. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 506-517.

Hampson, S. E., Goldberg, L. R., Vogt, T. M., Hillier, T. A., & Dubanoski, J. P. (2009). Using physiological dysregulation to assess global health status: Associations with self-rated health and health behaviors. Journal of Health Psychology, 14, 232-241.

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Brown, D. E., Hampson, S. E., Dubanoski, J. P., Stone Murai, A., & Hillier, T. A. (2009). Effects of ethnicity and socioeconomic status on body composition in an admixed, multiethnic population in Hawaii. American Journal of Human Biology. 21, 383-388.

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Klest, B. K. (2009). Trauma, posttraumatic symptoms, and health in Hawaii: Gender, ethnicity, and social context. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Oregon, Eugene, OR.

Hampson, S. E. (2008). Mechanisms by which childhood personality traits influence adult well-being. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 264-268.

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Hampson, S. E., & Friedman, H. S. (2008). Personality and health: A lifespan perspective. In O. P. John, R. Robins, & L. Pervin (Eds.), The handbook of personality: Theory and research (3rd ed., pp. 770-794). New York: Guilford.

Farmer, R. F., & Goldberg, L. R. (2008). A psychometric evaluation of the Revised Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) and the TCI-140. Psychological Assessment, 20, 281-291.

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Farmer, R. F., & Goldberg, L. R. (2008). Brain modules, personality layers, planes of being, spiral structures, and the equally implausible distinction between TCI-R "temperament" and "character" scales: Reply to Cloninger. Psychological Assessment, 20, 300-304.

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Goldberg, L. R., Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2008). Comment on Anderson and Ones (2008). European Journal of Personality, 22, 151-156.

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Zheng, L., Goldberg, L. R., Zheng, Y., Zhao, Y., Tang, Y., & Liu, L. (2008). Reliability and concurrent validation of the IPIP Big-Five factor markers in China: Consistencies in factor structure between Internet-obtained heterosexual and homosexual samples. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 649-654.

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Hampson, S. E., Goldberg, L. R., Vogt, T. M., & Dubanoski, J. P. (2007). Mechanisms by which childhood personality traits influence adult health status: Educational attainment and healthy behaviors. Health Psychology, 26, 121-125.

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Roberts, B. W., Kuncel, N. R., Shiner, R., Caspi, A., & Goldberg, L. R. (2007). The power of personality: The comparative validity of personality traits, socioeconomic status, and cognitive ability for predicting important life outcomes. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2, 313-345.

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Kanazawa, A., White, P. M., & Hampson, S. E. (2007). Ethnic variation in depressive symptoms in a community sample in Hawaii. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13(1), 35-44.

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Hampson, S. E., & Goldberg, L. R. (2006). A first large cohort study of personality trait stability over the 40 years between elementary school and midlife. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 763-779.

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Hampson, S. E., Goldberg, L. R., Vogt, T. M., & Dubanoski, J. P. (2006). Forty years on: Teachers' assessments of children's personality traits predict self-reported health behaviors and outcomes at midlife. Health Psychology, 25, 57-64.

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Goldberg, L. R. (2001). Analyses of Digman's child-personality data: Derivation of Big-Five factor scores from each of six samples. Journal of Personality, 69, 709-743.

Hampson, S. E., Dubanoski, J. P., Hamada, W., Marsella, A. J., Matsukawa, J., Suarez, E., & Goldberg, L. R. (2001). Where are they now? Locating former elementary-school students after nearly 40 years for a longitudinal study of personality and health. Journal of Research in Personality, 35, 375-387.

Marsella, A.J., Dubanoski, J. P., Hamada, W. C., & Morse, H. (2000). The measurement of personality across cultures: Historical, conceptual, and methodological issues and considerations. American Behavioral Scientist, 44, 41-62.