Susan C. Duncan, Ph.D.

Contact

Education & Training

Ph.D., 1992
University of Oregon, Eugene, OR
Physical Education (Social Psychology of Exercise & Sport)

M.S., 1988
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL
Kinesiology

B.A., 1986
North Staffordshire Polytechnic, England
Sport and Recreation Studies

Since joining ORI in 1991, Dr. Duncan’s research has focused on substantive, statistical, and methodological issues related to youth social and health risk behaviors (e.g., substance use) and health promoting behaviors (predominantly physical activity). She has been the Principal Investigator on 5 NIH grants (NICHD and NIAAA) and a Co-Investigator on 14 NIH grants (NIDA, NCI, NIA, NHLBI), successfully collaborating with numerous investigators across multiple projects. Dr. Duncan’s graduate work and Ph.D. in Physical Education focused heavily on the social psychology of exercise and sport, as well as methodological and analytical issues in behavioral research. She has published widely in her substantive and methodological areas of interest including co-authoring two books on latent growth curve modeling.

Current Projects

Family Transmission of Alcohol Use Disorder Risk

PROJECT PERIOD

03/15/16 - 02/28/18

FUNDING AGENCY

National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)

CURRENT STATUS

Active and Not Recruiting

TEAM

Principal Investigator
Richard Farmer, John Seeley

Co-Investigators
Jeff Gau, Peter Lewinsohn, Susan Duncan

Learn More →


Physical Activity of African American, Latino, and White Girls

Girls Active Lifestyles Study (GALS)

PROJECT PERIOD

04/05/10 - 03/31/16

FUNDING AGENCY

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)

CURRENT STATUS

Active and Not Recruiting

TEAM

Principal Investigator
Susan Duncan

Co-Investigators
Nigel Chaumeton, Lisa Strycker

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Natural Course of Cannabis Use Disorders from Childhood through Early Adulthood

PROJECT PERIOD

09/15/12 - 08/31/15

FUNDING AGENCY

National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)

CURRENT STATUS

Completed

TEAM

Principal Investigator
Richard Farmer, John Seeley

Co-Investigators
Peter Lewinsohn, Susan Duncan

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Natural Course and Developmental Trajectories of Alcohol Use Disorders

PROJECT PERIOD

09/10/12 - 08/31/15

FUNDING AGENCY

National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)

CURRENT STATUS

Completed

TEAM

Principal Investigator
Richard Farmer, John Seeley

Co-Investigators
Peter Lewinsohn, Susan Duncan

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Sequenced vs Integrated Delivery of Treatment for Adolescent Depression and SUD

PROJECT PERIOD

09/30/07 - 06/30/13

FUNDING AGENCY

National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)

CURRENT STATUS

Completed

TEAM

Principal Investigator
Paul Rohde

Co-Investigators
Janet Brody, Charles Turner, Holly Waldron, Susan Duncan

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Publications

Farmer, R. F., Seeley, J. R., Kosty, D. B., Gau, J. M., Duncan, S. C., Sher, K. J., & Lewinsohn, P. M. (2017). No reliable evidence that emotional disorders are proximal antecedents, concomitants, or short-term consequences of first episode alcohol use disorders in a representative community sample. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 78(2), 222–231.

Farmer, R. F., Kosty, D. B., Seeley, J. R., Gau, J. M., Duncan, S. C., Walker, D. D., & Lewinsohn, P. M. (2016). Association of comorbid psychopathology with the duration of cannabis use disorders. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 30(1), 82-92. doi.org/10.1037/adb0000151

Abstract or Full Text

Duncan, S. C., Strycker, L. A., Chaumeton, N. R., & Cromley, E. K. (2016). Relations of Neighborhood Environment Influences, Physical Activity, and Active Transportation to/from School across African American, Latino American, and White Girls in the United States. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 23, 153-161. doi: 10.1007/s12529-015-9508-9

Abstract or Full Text

Duncan, S. C., Gau, J. M., Farmer, R. F., Seeley, J. R., Kosty, D. B., & Lewinsohn, P. M. (2015). Comorbidity and temporal relations of alcohol and cannabis use disorders from youth through adulthood. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 1(149), 80-86. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.01.025

Abstract or Full Text

Farmer, R. F., Seeley, J. R., Kosty, D. B., Gau, J. M., Duncan, S. C., Lynskey, M. T., & Lewinsohn, P. M. (2015). Internalizing and externalizing psychopathology as predictors of cannabis use disorder onset during adolescence and early adulthood. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 29(3), 541-551. doi:10.1037/adb0000059

Abstract or Full Text

Farmer, R., Kosty, D., Seeley, J., Duncan, S., Lynskey, M., Rohde, P., Klein, D. N., & Lewinsohn, P. M. (2015). Natural course of cannabis use disorders. Psychological Medicine, 45, 63-72. 

Abstract or Full Text

Kosty, D. B., Farmer, R. F., Seeley, J. R., Gau, J. M., Duncan, S. C., & Lewinsohn, P. M. (2015). Parental transmission of risk for cannabis use disorders to offspring. Addiction, 110(7), 1110-1117. doi:10.1111/add.12914

Duncan, S. C., Strycker, L. A., & Chaumeton, N. R. (2015). Personal, Family, and Peer Correlates of General and Sport Physical Activity among African American, Latino, and White Girls. Journal Of Health Disparities Research And Practice, 8, 12-28.

Abstract or Full Text

Duncan, S. C., Strycker, L. A., & Chaumeton, N. R. (2015). School influences on the physical activity of african american, latino, and white girls. The Journal Of School Health, 85(1), 43-52. doi:10.1111/josh.12218

Abstract or Full Text

Duncan, S. C., Strycker, L. A., & Chaumeton, N. R. (2015). Sports Participation and Positive Correlates in African American, Latino, and White Girls. Applied Developmental Science, 19(4), 206-216. doi:10.1080/10888691.2015.1020156

Abstract or Full Text

Duncan, S. C., Seeley, J. R., Gau, J. M., Strycker, L. A., & Farmer, R. F. (2012). A latent growth model of adolescent physical activity as a function of depressive symptoms. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 5, 57-65. doi:10.1016/j.mhpa.2012.03.001

Abstract or Full Text

Chaumeton, N. R., Duncan, S. C., Duncan, T. E., & Strycker, L. A. (2011) A measurement model of youth physical activity using pedometer and self, parent, and peer reports. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 18(3), 209-215.

Abstract or Full Text

Duncan, S. C., & Duncan, T. E. (2012). Accelerated Longitudinal Designs. In Laursen, B., Little, T. D, & Card, N. A.. (Eds.) Handbook of Developmental Research Methods (pp.31-45). New York: Guilford Press.

Duncan, S. C., Strycker, L. A., & Duncan, T. E. (2012). Alcohol Use of African Americans and Whites from Ages 9-20: Descriptive Results From a Longitudinal Study. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 11:3, 214-225.

Abstract or Full Text

Boles, M., Dilley, J. A., Dent, C., Elman, M. R., Duncan, S. C., & Johnson, D. B. (2011). Changes in local school policies and practices in Washington State after an unfunded physical activity and nutrition mandate. Preventing Chronic Disease, 8 (6): A129.

Duncan, S. C., Gau, J. M., Duncan, T. E., & Strycker, L. A. (2011). Development and Correlates of Alcohol Use from Ages 13-20. Journal of Drug Education, 41, 235-252.

Abstract or Full Text

Irvine, A. B., Philips, L., Seeley, J., Wyant, S., Duncan, S., & Moore, R. W. (2011). Get Moving: A website that increases physical activity of sedentary employees. American Journal of Health Promotion, 25(3), 199-206.

Duncan, T. E., & Duncan, S. C. (2009). A latent variable framework for modeling drug use etiology.In L. M. Scheier (Ed.), Handbook of drug use etiology: Theory, Methods and Empirical Findings (pp. 525-545). Washington DC: APA.

Duncan, T. E., & Duncan, S. C. (2009). The ABC’s of LGM: A Beginner’s Guide to Latent Growth Curve Modeling. Social and Personality Psychology Compass 3/6 (2009): 979-991.

Strycker, L.A., Duncan, S. C., Duncan, T.E., Chaumeton, N.R., & He, H. (2008). Use of a local worker survey as a source of neighborhood information. Environment and Behavior, 40, 726-741.

Hampson, S. E., Andrews, J. A., Peterson, M., & Duncan, S. C. (2007). A cognitive-behavioral mechanism leading to adolescent obesity: Children’s social images and physical activity. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 34(3), 287-294. PMCID: PMC2424024 Abstract

Duncan, S. C., Duncan, T. E., Strycker, L. A. & Chaumeton, N. R. (2007). A Cohort-Sequential Latent Growth Model of Physical Activity from Ages 12-17 Years. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 33(1), 80-89.  Full Text

Strycker, L. A., Duncan, S. C., Chaumeton, N. R., Duncan, T. E., & Toobert (D.) (2007). Reliability and validity of pedometer data in youth and older adult populations. International Journal of Behavior, Nutrition and Physical Activity, 4:4.

Duncan, S. C., Duncan, T. E., & Strycker, L. A. (2006).  Alcohol use from ages 9-16: A cohort-sequential latent growth model.  Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 81, 71-81. PMID: 16006054  Full Text

Duncan, T.E., Duncan, S.C., & Strycker, L.A. (2006).  An Introduction to Latent Variable Growth Curve Modeling: Concepts, Issues, and Applications: Revised Edition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Duncan, T.E., Duncan, S.C., Strycker, L. A., Okut, H. & Hix-Small, H. (2006). Recent methodological and statistical advances in adolescent substance abuse treatment research. In H. Liddle & C. (Eds.), Adolescent Substance Abuse: Research and Clinical Advances (pp. 52-78).Cambridge University Press.

Strycker, L. A., Duncan, S. C., Duncan, T. E., He, H., & Desai, N. (2006).  Retention of African-American and White Youth in a Longitudinal Substance Use Study. Journal of Substance Abuse, 5(3), 119-131.

Duncan, S. C., Duncan, T. E., & Strycker, L. A. (2005). Sources and Types of Social Support in Youth Physical Activity. Health Psychology, 24, 3-10. PMID: 15631557  Full Text

Duncan, T. E., & Duncan, S. C. (2004).  A latent growth curve modeling approach to pooled interrupted time series analyses. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26, 271-278.  Full Text

Duncan, S. C., Duncan, T. E., Strycker, L. A., & Chaumeton, N. R. (2004). A multilevel analysis of sibling physical activity. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 26, 57-68.

Duncan, S. C., Duncan, T. E., Strycker, L. A., & Chaumeton, N. R. (2004). A multilevel approach to youth physical activity research. Invited paper: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 32, (3), 95-99.

Abstract or Full Text

Hix-Small, H., Duncan, T. E., Duncan, S. C., & Okut, H. (2004).  A multivariate associative finite growth mixture modeling approach examining adolescent alcohol and marijuana use.  Journal of Psychopathology & Behavioral Assessment, 26, 255-270.  Abstract

Duncan, T. E., & Duncan, S. C. (2004). An introduction to latent growth curve modeling. Behavior Therapy, 35, 333-363.

Duncan, T.E., Duncan, S.C., Okut, H., Strycker, L. A., & Hix-Small, H. (2003). A Multilevel Contextual Model of Neighborhood Collective Efficacy. American Journal of Community Psychology, 32, 245-252. PMID: 14703260  Abstract

Andrews, J. A., Tildesley, E., Hops, H., Duncan, S. C., & Severson, H. (2003). Elementary school age children's future intentions and use of substances. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 556-567.

Abstract or Full Text

Duncan, S. C., Duncan, T. E., & Strycker, L. A. (2003). Family influences on youth alcohol use: A multiple-sample analysis by ethnicity and gender. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 2, 17-33.

Duncan, T. E., Duncan, S.C. & Li, F. (2003). Power analysis models and methods: a latent variable framework for power estimation and analyses. In Z. Sloboda and W. Bukowski (Eds.), Handbook of Drug Abuse Prevention, pp. 609-626. New York:Klewer Academic/Plenum Publishing Co.

Strycker, L. A., Duncan, S. C., & Pickering, A. (2003).  The social context of alcohol initiation. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 2,  35-42.

Duncan, T. E., Duncan, S.C., Li, F., & Strycker, L.A. (2002). A comparison of longitudinal multilevel techniques for analyzing adolescent and family alcohol use data. In D.S. Moskowitz and S.L. Hershberger (Eds.), Modeling IntraIndividual Variability With Repeated Measures Data: Methods and Applications (pp.171-201). New York: Plenum Publishing Co.

Duncan, T.E., Duncan, S.C., Strycker, L. A., & Li, F. (2002). A latent variable framework for power estimation and analyses within intervention contexts. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 24, 1-12.

Duncan, S.C., Duncan, T.E., & Strycker, L.A. (2002). A Multilevel Analysis of Neighborhood Context and Youth Alcohol and Drug Problems. Prevention Science, 3, 125-134. PMID: 12088137  Abstract

Duncan, S.C., Strycker, L.A., Duncan, T.E., & Okut, H. (2002). A multilevel contextual model of family conflict and deviance. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 24, 169-175.  Abstract

Duncan, T.E., Duncan, S.C., Okut, H., Strycker, L.A., & Li, F. (2002). An extension of the general latent variable growth modeling framework to four levels of the hierarchy. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 303-326.

Duncan, S.C., Duncan, T.E., Strycker, L.A., & Chaumeton, N.R. (2002). Neighborhood physical activity opportunity: A multilevel model. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 73, 457-463. PMID: 12495248

Duncan, S.C., Duncan, T.E., Strycker, L. A., & Chaumeton, N.R. (2002). Relations between youth antisocial and prosocial activities. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 5, 425-438. PMID: 12442559  Abstract

Li, F., Harmer, P., Chaumeton, N. R., Duncan, T. E., & Duncan, S. C. (2002). Tai chi as a means to enhance self-esteem: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 21, 70-89.

Duncan, S.C., Strycker, L. A., Duncan, T. E., He, H., & Stark, M. J. (2002). Telephone recruitment of a random stratified African American and White study sample. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 1, 57-73.

Duncan, S.C., Strycker, L.A., Duncan, T.E., & Chaumeton, N. R. (2002).  Telephone recruitment of a random stratified youth sample for a physical activity study.  Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 18(3): 353–368.

Li, F., Harmer, P., McAuley, E., Duncan, T.E., Duncan, S.C., Chaumeton, N., & Fisher, J.K. (2001). An evaluation of the effects of Tai Chi exercise on physical function among older persons: A randomized controlled trial. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 23, 139-146. PMID: 11394556

Li, F., Duncan, T.E., Duncan, S.C., McAuley, E., Chaumeton, N.R., & Harmer, P. (2001). Enhancing the psychological well-being of elderly individuals through Tai Chi exercise: A latent growth curve analysis. Structural Equation Modeling, 8, 53-83.

Li, F., Duncan, T. E., Duncan, S. C., Jonsson, F. Y., Acock, A., & Hops, H. (2001). Interaction Models in Latent Growth Curves. In G. A. Marcoulides and R. E. Schumacker (Eds.), Advances in structural equation modeling: New developments and techniques, pp.173-202. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Li, F., Duncan, T.E., & Duncan, S.C. (2001). Latent growth modeling of longitudinal data: A finite mixture growth modeling approach. Structural Equation Modeling, 8, 175-204.

Duncan, S. C., Duncan, T. E., & Strycker, L. A. (2001). Qualitative and quantitative shifts in adolescent problem behavior development: A cohort-sequential multivariate latent growth modeling approach. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 23, 43-50.

Li, F., Harmer, P., McAuley, E., Fisher, K. J., Duncan, T. E., & Duncan, S. C. (2001). Tai chi, self-efficacy, and physical function in the elderly. Prevention Science, 2, 229-240. PMID: 11833926

Hops, H., Andrews, J.A., Duncan, S.C., Duncan, T.E., & Tildesley, E. (2000). Adolescent drug use development: A social interactional and contextual perspective. In M. Lewis & A.J. Sameroff (Eds.), Handbook of Developmental Psychopathology, 2nd edition (pp. 589-605). New York: Plenum Press.

Duncan, T.E., Duncan, S.C., Beauchamp, P.M., Wells, J., & Ary, D. (2000). Development and evaluation of an Interactive CD-Rom Refusal Skills Program to Prevent Youth Substance Use: "Refuse to Use." Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 23, 59-72.

Park, J., Kosterman, R., Hawkins, J.D., Haggerty, K.P., Duncan, T.E., Duncan, S.C., & Spoth, R. (2000). "Preparing for the drug free years" Curriculum on growth in alcohol use and risk for alcohol use in early adolescence. Prevention Science, 1, 125-138.

Duncan, S.C., Duncan, T.E., & Strycker, L.A. (2000). Risk and protective factors influenceing adolescent problem behavior: A multivariate latent growth curve analysis. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 22, 103-109.

Ary, D. V., Duncan, T. E., Duncan, S. C., & Hops, H. (1999). Adolescent problem behavior: The influence of parents and peers. Behavior Research and Therapy, 37, 217-230.

Duncan, T.E., Duncan, S.C., Strycker, L.A., Li, F., & Alpert, A. (1999). An Introduction to Latent Variable Growth Curve Modeling: Concepts, Issues, and Applications. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Duncan, S.C., Strycker, L.A., & Duncan, T.E. (1999). Exploring associations in developmental trends of adolescent substance use and risky sexual behavior in a high risk population. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 22, 21-33.

Duncan, T.E., Duncan, S.C., & Li, F. (1998).  A comparison of model- and multiple imputation- based ?approaches to analyses with partial missingness.  Structural Equation Modeling, 5, 1-21.

Duncan, S.C., Duncan, T.E., & Alpert, A. (1998).  Alcohol use among African American and White siblings: A multilevel latent growth modeling approach. Journal of Gender, Culture, and Health, 3, 209-225.

Li, F., Harmer, P., Duncan, T.E., Duncan, S.C., Acock, A., & Boles, S. (1998).  Approaches to testing interaction effects using structural equation methodology.  Multivariate Behavioral Research, 33, 1-39.

Li, F., Harmer, P., Duncan, T. E., Duncan, S. C., Acock, A., & Yamamoto, T. (1998).  Confirmatory factor analysis for the Task and Ego Orientation in Sports Questionnaire with cross-validation.  Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 69, 276-283.

Duncan, S. C., Duncan, T. E., Biglan, A., & Ary, D. (1998).  Contributions of the social context to the ?development of adolescent substance use: A multivariate latent growth modeling approach.  Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 50, 57-71.

Duncan, T. E., Duncan, S. C., & Hops, H. (1998). Latent variable modeling of longitudinal and  multilevel alcohol use data.  Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 59, 399-408.

Duncan, T. E., Alpert, A., & Duncan, S. C. (1998).  Multilevel covariance structure analysis of sibling antisocial behavior.  Structural Equation Modeling, 5, 211-228.

Duncan, S.C., Duncan, T.E., & Hops, H. (1998).  Progressions of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in adolescence.  Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21, 155-168.

Li, F., Duncan, T. E., Duncan, S. C., Harmer, P., & Acock, A. (1998). Testing the TEOSQ measurement model with incomplete data: An application of maximum likelihood-based estimation procedures. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 2, 1-19.

Andrews, J. A. & Duncan, S. C. (1998). The effect of attitude on the development of cigarette use. Journal of Substance Use, 10, 1 - 7.

Duncan, S.C., Alpert, A., Duncan, T.E., & Hops, H. (1997). Adolescent alcohol use development and young ?adult outcomes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 46, 39-48.

Andrews, J. A.., Hops, H., Duncan, S.C. (1997). Adolescent modeling of parent substance use: The moderating effect of the relationship with the parent. Journal of Family Psychology, 11, 259-270.

Andrews, J. A. & Duncan, S. C. (1997). Examining the reciprocal relation between academic motivation and substance use: Effects of family relationships, self-esteem and general deviance. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 20, 523 - 549.

Duncan, T.E., Duncan, S.C., Alpert, A., Hops, H., Stoolmiller, M., & Muthén, B. (1997). Latent variable modeling of longitudinal and multilevel substance use data. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 32, 275-318.

Li, F., Duncan, T.E., Duncan, S.C., Harmer, P., & Acock, A. (1997). Latent variable modeling of multilevel intrinsic motivation data. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 1, 223-244.

Duncan, T.E., Duncan, S.C., & Alpert, A. (1997). Multilevel covariance structure analysis of family substance use across samples and ethnicities. Journal of Gender, Culture, and Health, 2, 271-286.

Duncan, T.E., Duncan, S.C., Alpert, A., & Hops, H. (1997). Multilevel covariance structure analysis of intra-familial substance use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 46, 167-180.

Duncan, S.C., & Duncan, T.E. (1996). A multivariate latent growth curve analysis of adolescent substance use. ?Structural Equation Modeling, 3, 323-347.

Duncan, S.C., Duncan, T.E., & Hops, H. (1996). Analysis of longitudinal data within accelerated longitudinal designs. Psychological Methods, 1, 236-248.

Duncan, T.E., Alpert, A., Duncan, S.C. & Hops, H. (1996). Multilevel covariance structure analysis of sibling substance use and intra-family conflict. Journal of Psychopathology & Behavioral Assessment, 18, 347-370.

Hops, H., Duncan, T.E., Duncan, S.C., & Stoolmiller, M. (1996). Parent substance use as a predictor of adolescent use: A six-year lagged analysis. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 18(3), 157-164.

Duncan, T.E., Duncan, S.C, & Hops, H. (1996). The role of parents and older siblings in predicting adolescent substance use: Modeling development via structural equation latent growth methodology. Journal of Family Psychology, 10, 158-172.

Duncan, T.E.., Duncan, S.C., Hops, H., & Stoolmiller, M. (1995). An analysis of the relationship between parent and adolescent marijuana use via GEE methodology. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 30, 317-339.

Duncan, T.E. & Duncan, S.C. (1995). Modeling the processes of development via latent variable growth curve methodology. Structural Equation Modeling, 2, 187-213.

Duncan, T. E., Tildesley, E., Duncan S. C. & Hops, H. (1995). The consistency of family and peer influences on the development of substance use in adolescence. Addiction, 90(12), 1647-1660.

Experience

2001-
Member of the NIH RPHB-4 Study Section

1996-
Research Scientist
Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR

1996-
Research Scientist
Oregon Center for Applied Science, Eugene, OR

1995-1996
Research Associate
Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR

1992-1995
Research Analyst
Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR

1991-1992
Senior Research Programmer
Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR

1988-1992
Research Assistant and Graduate Teaching Fellow,
Department of Physical Education & Human Movement Studies,
University of Oregon, Eugene, OR

1987-1988
Research Assistant and Graduate Teaching Fellow,
Department of Kinesiology,
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL